Breast cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the breast tissue. It occurs when the cells in the breast tissue begin to grow uncontrollably, forming a lump or mass in the breast. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, although it can also occur in men.
The symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump or thickening in the breast tissue, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin, nipple discharge or inversion, and redness or scaling of the breast skin.
The exact causes of breast cancer are not known, but certain risk factors have been identified, including gender, age, family history, hormonal factors, alcohol consumption, and obesity. While some risk factors, such as gender and age, cannot be changed, other risk factors, such as maintaining a healthy weight and limiting alcohol consumption, can be modified to reduce the risk of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of breast tissue for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for breast cancer may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the stage and type of breast cancer.
Early detection and treatment are crucial for successful outcomes in breast cancer. Women are encouraged to have regular mammograms starting at age 40, and perform self-exams, and report any changes in their breasts to their healthcare provider.